Renewable energy in India

India has achieved its target of achieving 40% of its installed electricity capacity from non-fossil energy sources by 2030 in November 2021.

India is world’s 3rd largest consumer of electricity and world’s 3rd largest renewable energy producer with 38% (136 GW out of 373 GW) of total installed energy capacity in 2020 from renewable sources.

  • Ernst & Young’s (EY) 2021 Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Index (RECAI) ranked India 3rd behind USA and China.

In 2016, Paris Agreement’s Intended Nationally Determined Contributions targets, India made commitment of producing 50% of its total electricity from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030. In 2018, India’s Central Electricity Authority set a target of producing 50% of the total electricity from non-fossil fuels sources by 2030. India has also set a target of producing 175 GW by 2022 and 500 GW by 2030 from renewable energy. As of September 2020, 89.22 GW solar energy is already operational, projects of 48.21 GW are at various stages of implementation and projects of 25.64 GW capacity are under various stages of bidding.

In 2020, 3 of the world’s top 5 largest solar parks were in India Including world’s largest 2255 MW Bhadla Solar Park in Rajasthan and world’s second-largest solar park of 2000 MW Pavgada solar Park Tumkur in Karnataka and 100MW Kurnool in Andhra Pradesh.

  • Wind power in India has a strong manufacturing base with 20 manufactures of 53 different wind turbine models of international quality up to 3 MW in size with exports to Europe, the United States and other countries.

India is the 5th globally for installed hydroelectric power capacity. As of 31 March 2020, India’s installed utility-scale hydroelectric capacity was 45,699 MW, or 12.35% of its total utility power generation capacity

As of November 2020, India had 10 nuclear reactors under-construction with a combined capacity of 8 GW and 23 existing nuclear reactors in operation in 7 nuclear power plants with a total installed capacity of 7.4 GW (3.11% of total power generation in India). Nuclear power is the fifth-largest source of electricity in India after coal, gas, hydroelectricity and wind power.

India imports 85% of petrol products with import cost of $55 billion in 2020-21, India has set a target of blending 20% ethanol in petrol by 2025 resulting in import substitution saving of US$4 billion or INR30,000 crore, and India provides financial assistance for manufacturing ethanol from rice, wheat, barley, corn, sorghum, sugarcane, sugar beet, etc.Ethanol market penetration reached its highest figure of a 3.3% blend rate in India in 2016. Ethanol is produced from sugarcane molasses and partly from grains and can be blended with gasoline. Sugarcane or sugarcane juice may not be used for the production of ethanol in India. Government is also encouraging 2G ethanol commercial production using biomass as feed stock.

India initiative the International Solar Alliance (ISA) is now an alliance of 121 countries. India was world’s first country to set up a ministry of non-conventional energy resources (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) in early 1980s) . Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI), a public sector undertaking, is responsible for the development of solar energy industry in India. Hydroelectricity is administered separately by the Ministry of Power and not included in MNRE targets.

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